Sudan Overview

Sudan is located on the Nile and Red Sea in northeastern Africa, and borders Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, the Central African Republic, Chad and Libya. The country is characterized by desert and steppe areas with sparse vegetation in the form of drought-resistant grass and shrubs.

Capital: Khartoum
Biggest city: Khartoum
State: republic
Language: Arabic
Religion: Islam
Surface: 2 505 810 km²
Population: 34.2 million (2013)
Population density: 16 residents per km²
Life expectancy: 51 years
Illiteracy: 39%
Currency: Sudanese Pound (SDD)
GDP per capita: $ 2,500 (2010)
Time difference: +1 hour
Electricity: 240 V AC, 50 Hz
National Day: January 1
Country area code: 249
2-Letter country abbreviation: SD (See more abbreviations on Abbreviationfinder)
Business: agriculture 63%, service sector 33%, industry 4%
Climate: in the north mainly desert climate; in the south tropical with rainy season from April to October

Sudan flag

In 2011, the southern part of Sudan became an independent state from Sudan called South Sudan. The country signed a peace agreement in January 2005, ending a 22-year civil war between the northern and southern parts of Sudan.


The following objects in Sudan are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The year in which the item was added to the list is indicated in parentheses.

  • Gebel Barkal and other archeological remains in Napata (2003)
  • Meroë, archeological site from 500 BC. to 330 AD. (2011)


Electricity and electrical outlets in Sudan

Voltage: 230 V

Frequency: 50 Hz

Type of plug: C, D

Need an adapter: No, you do not need an adapter.


Weather in Khartoum

Climate Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Christmas Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Average temperature °C 22 24 27 31 33 34 31 30 31 31 27 24
Day °C 31 33 36 40 41 41 38 36 38 39 35 31
Night °C 15 16 20 23 26 27 25 25 25 25 21 17
Rain (mm) 0 0 0 0 4 7 47 67 23 4 0 0

Sudan 2


According to Countryaah, Khartoum is the capital of Sudan, and has 2.2 million residents (2005). The city is located where the White Nile and the Blue Nile flow together. A number of bridges cross the Nile and connect Khartoum with Bahri and Omdurman. Khartoum was founded in 1821 as an outpost of the Egyptian army. The city includes Khartoum University.

Khartoum International Airport is the country’s largest airport. It was built in the southern corner of the city, but with the increasing urbanization, it has ended up in the city’s interior. Therefore, work has begun on a new international airport on the other side of the Nile, near Omdurman.

Khartoum has rail links with Port Sudan and El Obeid in Egypt.


With about half a million residents, Omdurman is one of Sudan’s largest cities and is located in the state of Khartoum. The city was the country’s capital between 1885 and 1898 and is located on the west bank of the Nile, opposite Sudan’s official capital Khartoum. Omdurman has the status of the country’s legislative capital, and is the seat of the National Assembly and the Governing Council of the states of Sudan.

The city has light industry, museum and Islamic university. Together with Khartoum and Khartoum Bahri (North Khartoum), the area forms the religious, cultural and industrial core of the nation. The metropolitan area around the three cities of equal size has almost four million residents along with adjacent districts.

In the board game “The Lost Diamond”, it is Omdurman who is responsible for the visit to the region, and not the capital Khartoum.

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