Sudan Economic Conditions


The Sudanese economy, already traditionally dependent on the primary sector, remained in a state of serious underdevelopment until the last decade of the twentieth century, when it began to show signs of recovery, after a radical transformation of production structures. This breakthrough was made possible both from the beginning of oil extraction and from the aid from international organizations that the Sudan began to receive after embarking on a severe structural adjustment program imposed by the International Monetary Fund. The prospects opened by oil exploitation and the rigid monetary policy have attracted huge foreign investments in the United States, so that the gross domestic product has registered increases of more than 10% per year in 2006 and 2007. ● Agricultural activities remain important, since they employ 80% of the labor force, and still contribute to forming 32% of the gross domestic product (2007). However, they are negatively affected by the great extension of deserts and by water scarcity: therefore agricultural development has only taken place along the course of the Nile and its main tributaries, and in regions where rainfall is able to support the growth process of crops. Three types of agriculture can be identified: irrigated, rainwater and traditional. Modern irrigated agriculture focuses on the cultivation of cotton (960,000 q of fiber and 2.6 million q of seeds) on the fertile soils of the Gezira, from which it has subsequently spread to the areas adjacent to the rivers However, they are negatively affected by the great extension of deserts and by water scarcity: therefore agricultural development has only taken place along the course of the Nile and its main tributaries, and in regions where rainfall is able to support the growth process of crops. Three types of agriculture can be identified: irrigated, rainwater and traditional. Modern irrigated agriculture focuses on the cultivation of cotton (960,000 q of fiber and 2.6 million q of seeds) on the fertile soils of the Gezira, from which it has subsequently spread to the areas adjacent to the rivers However, they are negatively affected by the great extension of deserts and by water scarcity: therefore agricultural development has only taken place along the course of the Nile and its main tributaries, and in regions where rainfall is able to support the growth process of crops. Three types of agriculture can be identified: irrigated, rainwater and traditional. Modern irrigated agriculture focuses on the cultivation of cotton (960,000 q of fiber and 2.6 million q of seeds) on the fertile soils of the Gezira, from which it has subsequently spread to the areas adjacent to the rivers and in regions where rainfall is able to support the crop growth process. Three types of agriculture can be identified: irrigated, rainwater and traditional. Modern irrigated agriculture focuses on the cultivation of cotton (960,000 q of fiber and 2.6 million q of seeds) on the fertile soils of the Gezira, from which it has subsequently spread to the areas adjacent to the rivers and in regions where rainfall is able to support the crop growth process. Three types of agriculture can be identified: irrigated, rainwater and traditional. Modern irrigated agriculture focuses on the cultivation of cotton (960,000 q of fiber and 2.6 million q of seeds) on the fertile soils of the Gezira, from which it has subsequently spread to the areas adjacent to the rivers Atbara and Rahad, where it was combined with the cultivation of sugar cane, peanuts, sorghum, or the classic products for export. However, the prevailing agricultural typology remains the rainfed one, which affects almost 10 million ha (compared to the total 12 million), cultivated only for a quarter by mechanical means. Mechanized rainfed agriculture contributes 50% to the national production of sorghum (4.2 million t in 2005) and 25% to that of sesame (4.2 million q), mainly on the soils of the plains of Kassala and the Blue Nile. Traditional agriculture is widespread above all in the central, western and southern areas of the country and includes, in addition to the non-mechanized rainfed one, itinerant agriculture, gradually regressing due to government measures to encourage the sedentarization of nomadic populations. The breeding is characterized by a considerable number of livestock owned by sedentary farmers: in 2005 there were 38 million heads of cattle, 48 million sheep, 42 million goats, 3.3 million camels. ● Until 2002, the year in which the Abu Jabra and Heglil oil wells in central-southern Italy went into operation, mining production consisted essentially in the extraction of gold (4728 kg in 2005), chromite and salt. Oil extraction, mainly operated by Chinese companies, it produced 18,850,000 tons in 2006, but when fully operational, production should double. The manufacturing activity, located mainly in the central-eastern area, dominated by the capital and equipped with infrastructures, includes sugar refineries, oil mills, distilleries, textile and oil refining industries (a Bur Sudan, also known as Port Sudan, and Khartoum). ● Within the national framework, the means of communication are insufficient. The road network measures 11,900 km always passable, 4100 of which are asphalted. The railway network (5000 km) rests on the main line that crosses the country in the NS direction, connecting Wadi Halfa, on the Egyptian border, with al-Obeid, through the capital. There are three main airports: in addition to that of the capital, Juba and Bur Sudan. The latter is the only seaport in the country, and plays a fundamental role in the sorting of incoming and outgoing goods, as well as for the supply of ships in transit on the Red Sea. The trade balance is highly passive.

Sudan Economic Conditions

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