Egypt Overview

Egypt is located in eastern North Africa, on the Mediterranean and the Red Sea. The population lives mainly along the Nile, while the Egyptian parts of the Sahara desert are sparsely populated. A large population, limited arable land area and dependence on the Nile continue to exceed resources and are a strain on the whole community. The country has the fastest growing population in the Arab world.

Capital: Cairo
Biggest city: Cairo
State: republic
Language: Arabic
Religion: Islam
Surface: 1 001 450 km²
Population: 84.7 million (2013)
Population density: 79 residents per km²
Life expectancy: 72 years
Illiteracy: 29%
Currency: Egyptian pound (EGP)
1 pound = 0.47 kr
GDP per capita: $ 6,300 (2010)
Time difference: +1 hour
Electricity: 220 V AC, 50Hz
National Day: 23 July
Country area code: 20
2-Letter country abbreviation: EG (See more abbreviations on Abbreviationfinder)
Business: service sector 54%, agriculture 34%, industry 12%
Climate: mainly desert climate, with mild winters and hot, dry summers

Egypt flag

Egypt has many sights that are unparalleled in the world. The Valley of the Kings in Luxor, the Pyramids and the Sphinx at Giza, the Karnak Temple north of Luxor, the rock temple of Abu Simbel and the unique tomb of Tutankhamun, on display at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.

The Red Sea has the world’s northernmost coral reef, and offers several world – class diving waters. Even traditional tourist resorts such as Hurghada have emerged, where diving can be combined with sunbathing and swimming.


The following objects in Egypt are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The year in which the item was added to the list is indicated in parentheses.

  • Abu Mena, With Early Christian Remnants (1979)
  • The ancient city of Thebes (1979)
  • Historic Cairo, the oldest parts of central Cairo (1979)
  • Memphis with its tombs, the pyramids between Giza and Dahshur (1979)
  • The Nubian Monuments Between Abu Simbel and File (1979)
  • Catherine Monastery on the Sinai Peninsula (2002)
  • Wadi Al-Hitan, Valley with Whale Fossils (2005)


Electricity and electrical outlets in Egypt

Voltage: 220 V

Frequency: 50 Hz

Type of plug: C

Need an adapter: No, you do not need an adapter.


Weather in Cairo

Climate Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Christmas Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Average temperature °C 14 14 17 21 25 27 28 28 26 23 19 15
Day °C 18 18 22 27 32 34 34 33 32 28 23 19
Night °C 9 9 12 15 18 20 22 22 20 18 14 10
Rain (mm) 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
Rainy days 5 3 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 3
Soltim / day 8 9 11 11 12 14 13 13 12 10 9 8

Egypt 2


Alexandria is Egypt’s most important port city and a significant industrial city in the northern part of Egypt, located at the northwestern Nile Delta outlet in the Mediterranean. The city is Egypt’s second largest, with 4.1 million residents (2006).

It was founded in 332 BC. of, and was named after, Alexander the Great. The city plan was made by Deinocrates with a right-angled street system – a model that was imitated in both ancient and modern times. The city got an artificial connection early on with the island of Faros where the lighthouse, one of the seven wonders of antiquity, was located. It was from the 300s BC. The capital of Egypt. The city became less important after Egypt in 31 BC. became a Roman province. It was taken by the Arabs in the 6th century AD. Its importance as an international port city diminished after sailing around the Cape of Good Hope, but increased again when the Suez Canal was built.


Aswan is a city in southern Egypt with 265,004 residents (2006). It is located on the eastern shore of the Nile by the first large waterfall and is a large market town and tourist town.

Aswan is one of the driest inhabited places in the world. In 2001, it had not rained for six years. In Nubian settlements, people do not usually care about roofing all the rooms in the house.


Hurghada is a tourist resort on the Red Sea in Egypt, located 400 kilometers south of Suez. The city has almost 200,000 residents (2010), and is popular with scuba divers. There are two centers, Dahar and Sekalla, which are a few kilometers apart, as well as a long line of hotels along the coast. Near Hurghada are about twenty coral islands that are popular tourist destinations.


According to Countryaah, Cairo is the capital of Egypt and is located on the Nile, about 150 kilometers inland from the Egyptian Mediterranean coast. Cairo’s metropolitan area is the most populous in Africa, and includes Giza with its famous pyramids. Depending on the definition, the total population is between 11.5 million (2006) for the Cairo / Giza / Shubra al-Khayma three-city area, and 18.4 million (2006) for the whole region, including the Cairo, Giza and al-Qalyubiyya governorates, and the newly formed governorates as-Sadis min Uktubar and Helwan.

Cairo did not exist during the Pharaonic period despite its proximity to the pyramids. The earliest archaeological remains date from the Roman period and consist of the remains of a fortification from the first century AD, which could control shipping on the Nile. The Romans called the city Babylon of Egypt.

The Egyptian Museum is usually considered one of the world’s most amazing museums. Here are over 100,000 objects from ancient Egypt. The collections are arranged chronologically, from the Old Kingdom to the Roman Empire. The most famous part of the collections is what was found in the tomb of the boy pharaoh Tutankhamun in the Valley of the Kings in the early 1920s. In the museum’s mummy chamber are the bodies of eleven kings and queens.

The bazaars of Islamic Cairo are also among the city’s classic tourist attractions. The neighborhood is called Khan el Khalili. The bazaars are among the largest in the entire Middle East and thus the whole world. They have medieval origins, but it was after the Ottoman conquest in the 16th century that the neighborhood became a meeting place for merchants from all over the world. Traditionally, the bazaar is divided into neighborhoods according to nationality and religion. Here you can buy almost everything. Most shops in Khan-el-Khalili are closed on Sundays.

Cairo is one of the world’s driest cities with a rainfall of only 20 mm per year. The city has hot summers and mild winters. In 1979, the historic part of Cairo was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List.


Luxor is a city on the Nile in central Egypt with 197,594 residents (2006). In and around Luxor there are several major tourist destinations, such as the Luxor Temple, Karnak and the Valley of the Kings.

In ancient times, the city was called Thebes, and was then the political capital of Egypt for several historical periods. From the New Kingdom (circa 1550 to 1080 BC), Thebes was also the religious capital of the kingdom.


Sharm el-Sheikh is a relatively new tourist resort on the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt. Until the 20th century, it was only a Bedouin village, but the clear water combined with fine coral reefs attracted divers, which was the starting point for tourism. The city has 35,000 residents (2008).

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