Egypt History Part 9
In the presidential election from May 26 to 28, 2014, in addition to Abdel Fattah al-Sisi, who had previously resigned his office, only the left-wing opposition candidate Hamdin Sabahi (* 1954) stood and the Muslim Brotherhood had called for a boycott, According to official information, Sisi received 96.9% of the votes cast in the first ballot (with a turnout of 47.45%). On June 8, 2014 he was sworn in as President. Ibrahim Mahleb remained Prime Minister. The domestic political situation remained unstable, and the state authorities pursued a repressive course both against the Islamist forces and against the secular opposition. Internationally controversial judgments were made by a. against the banned Muslim Brotherhood, whose followers were sentenced in mass trials. On February 2, 2015, a court upheld 183 death sentences from a mass trial from 2014 (149 death sentences were overturned in February 2016). A court also sentenced the ousted President Morsi to the death penalty on May 16, 2015 (confirmed on June 16, 2015, but overturned by the country’s highest court of appeal on November 15, 2016). In connection with a corruption affair, the Prime Minister was enough Ibrahim Mahleb resigned on September 12, 2015. His successor on September 19, 2015 was the previous oil minister, Sherif Ismail (* 1955) . On October 31, 2015, 224 people died in the crash of a Russian charter plane over the Sinai. Most of the victims were Russian tourists. The terrorist militia Islamic State claimed to have caused the crash by a bomb attack.
With a turnout of only around 28%, parliamentary elections were held in several stages from October to December 2015. Parties close to the Muslim Brotherhood who were close to the ousted President Morsi were not allowed to run. In the newly elected people’s assembly with 596 members, which met for the first time on January 16, 2016, the supporters of President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi a clear majority. On the Sinai Peninsula, where rebellious Bedouin tribes and supporters of the Islamic State fought against the state since 2013, there were repeated skirmishes and attacks in 2016/17. In addition, the terrorist violence against the Christian minority of the Copts escalated. In December 2016 and April 2017, attacks on Coptic churches left numerous lives. The government responded to the attacks in April 2017 by declaring a state of emergency. On June 5, 2017, according to oxfordastronomy, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates severed diplomatic relations with Qatar, which they accused of supporting and promoting terrorism. The traffic and trade relations with Qatar were also discontinued. On June 14, 2017, Parliament decided to cede the islands of Tiran and Sanafir in the Red Sea to Saudi Arabia. On the sidelines of the parliamentary session, there were demonstrations against the surrender of the islands. In Libya, Egypt sided with the general who controlled the east of the country Khalifa Haftar. In addition, it supported the alliance around Saudi Arabia in the war against the Houthi rebels in Yemen.
In the presidential elections from March 26 to 28, 2018, Abdel Fattah al-Sisi was confirmed in office with around 97% of the votes and a turnout of around 41%. The insignificant opponent Moussa Moussa (* 1952) received only around 2.9% of the vote. Serious opponents of the president had previously withdrawn or had been imprisoned.
Gizeh [-z-], Giza, Giza [-z-], Gisa, Gise, Arabic Al-Gizeh, capital of the Governorate of Giza, Egypt, on the western bank of the Nile opposite Old Cairo, (2018) 4.2 million residents.
Seat of a Coptic bishop, seat of the University of Cairo (founded in 1908); Art School, Academy for Arabic Language; major tourism; chemical industry, machine and vehicle construction, cigarette production.
The station (route Cairo-Aswan) is built in the ancient Egyptian style.
8 km away from Giza, on the outskirts of the Libyan Desert are three declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site pyramid complexes of the 4th Dynasty (middle of the 3rd millennium BC. Chr.), Of which the Cheops (originally 146.6 meters, now 137 m high) and Chephren (143.5 m, now 136.4 m) are the largest pyramids built in Egypt; that of Mykerinos measures 62 m today (originally 66.5 m). The pyramids each included a valley structure, access road and mortuary temple on the east side as well as ship (s), as well as side pyramids (for queens), east and west cemeteries for officials and princes, as well as pyramid cities and workers’ quarters. The huge Sphinx (actually “the” Sphinx) of Gizeh (20 m high, 57 m long) presumably left Cheops chisel in the quarry from the rock as guardian of the burial precinct; in the New Kingdom he was associated with the god Harmachis (“horizontal Horus”) and understood as the image of the sun god Re-Harachte. The private graves mostly have a massive superstructure in the sloping shape of the mastaba; since Chephren rock tombs have also been made. The royal mortuary temples and the cult chambers of the mastaba tombs are decorated in relief. The grave treasure (including travel tent, sedan chair, furniture, all gilded, oldest known canopic box) of Queen Hetepheres, mother of Cheops, is located in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, along with numerous statues. A new museum building on a plateau north of the pyramids is in progress; the competition for this was won in 2003 by the Irish firm Heneghan Peng Architects.
Under the Mamluks, Giza was used as a summer resort, and in the 19th century it became a village again. Today it forms an agglomeration with Cairo.