Egypt History Part 2

Ancient Egyptian history

Overview of ancient Egyptian history
Ancient times (around 6000–3200 BC):
Neolithic and Copper Age: Cultures in Lower Egypt (Faijum A and B, Merimde, El-Omari, Maadi) and in Upper Egypt (Badari, Negade I and II).
Pre- and early dynastic times (around 3200–2682 BC):
Negade III culture: Extension of the Negade culture over all of Egypt, creation of the unified kingdom.
Dynasty 0 (around 150 years): Insertion of written documents, first kings known by name (Scorpio, Narmer). Rulers’ tombs in Abydos.
1st and 2nd dynasty (around 3007–2682; Thinite period, early period): Kings Aha (Menes?) And Djer (1st dynasty), Chasechemui and others. (2nd dynasty). Founding of Memphis, creation of the calendar. Tombs of the kings in Abydos, tombs in Saqqara-North.
Old Kingdom (around 2682–2191 BC):
3rd dynasty (around 2682–2614): King Djoser (step pyramid of Saqqara, first monumental stone building). Residence in Memphis.
4th Dynasty (around 2614–2479): The great pyramid builders Sneferu, Cheops, Chephren and Mykerinos.
5th Dynasty (around 2479–2322): Faith in the sun becomes the state religion (construction of sun shrines). Development of the Osiris cult. Increase in written sources (including pyramid texts).
6th Dynasty (around 2322–2191): Beginning of the dissolution of the central state.
First Intermediate Period (around 2191–2025 BC):
7-10 Dynasty: Dynastic confusion.
11th dynasty (initially only in Thebes): Around 2025, the Upper Egyptian king Mentuhotep II achieves the new unification.
Middle Kingdom (around 2025–1794 / 93 BC):
11th dynasty (around 2025–1976): consolidation of the empire, residence Thebes.
12th Dynasty (around 1976–1794 / 93): Bloom under the kings Amenemhet and Sesostris. Relocation of the capital to Lisht, colonization of the Faiyum, southern border on the 2nd cataract.
Second intermediate period (around 1794 / 93–1550 BC):
13./14. Dynasty (around 1794 / 93–1648 / 45): decline under rapidly changing rulers. The disintegration of imperial unity.
15./16. Dynasty (around 1648 / 45–1539 / 36): Foreign rule of the Asian Hyksos, Auaris residence in the eastern delta.
17th Dynasty (around 1645–1550): Theban princes, beginning of the War of Liberation under King Kamose.
New Kingdom (around 1550-1070 / 69 BC):
18th Dynasty (around 1550–1292): King Amosis (Ahmose) drives out the Hyksos. Kings Thutmose and Amenhotep, Queen Hatshepsut. Under Thutmose III. (1479–1425) Egypt becomes a world power. Thebes residence, complex of the royal necropolis in the Valley of the Kings; Amun becomes god of the empire. Under the “heretic king” Amenophis IV./Echnaton (1351–1334) revolutionary innovations (Aton cult, establishment of the Amarna residence). His successors Tutankhamun, Eje and Haremhab put an end to the “Amarna period”.
19th Dynasty (around 1292–1186 / 85): Kings Sethos, Ramses I and II and Merenptah. Under Ramses II (1279–1213) peace treaty with the Hittites. Fight against Libyans and Sea Peoples.
20th Dynasty (around 1186 / 85-1070 / 69): Ramses III. (1183 / 82–1152 / 51), the last great and successful ruler of the New Kingdom; Kings Ramses IV.–XI.
Third Intermediate Period (around 1070 / 69–664 BC):
21st dynasty (around 1070 / 69–946 / 945): It resides in Tanis in the delta, while the high priests of Amun rule the “state of God” in Thebes.
22./23. Dynasty of Libyan kings (946 / 945–722): kings Scheschonk I, Osorkon I.
24th dynasty in the western delta (around 746–720): Kings Tefnachte, Bokchoris.
25th dynasty (Cushites, around 753–664): Kings Pianchi (Pije), Schabaka, Taharka. Invasion of the Assyrians, destruction of Thebes.
Late period (664–332 BC):
26th dynasty in Sais (Saiten, 664–525): Kings Psammetich I – III., Necho, Apries, Amasis. Construction of a canal to the Red Sea.
27th Dynasty (Persians, 525–404): Egypt becomes Persian satrapy, the great kings are considered pharaohs. Around 450 BC BC Herodotus journey to Egypt.
28-30 Dynasty of indigenous rulers (404–342): Last struggle for independence; with the help of the Spartans expulsion of the Persians.
31st Dynasty (Persians, 342–332): New conquest by the Persians, which, however, passed to Alexander the Elder after the battle of Issus. Size to lose.
Greek Period (332-30 BC):
Alexander the Elder Size (332–323): Greeted as liberators (coronation by priests in Memphis); Founding of Alexandria.
House of the Ptolemies (323–30): connection of Egyptian and Greek elements. The capital Alexandria becomes the metropolis of intellectual life in the Mediterranean region. 48 BC BC Caesar in Egypt.
Roman period (30 BC-395 AD):
30 BC BC: Egypt becomes a Roman province with a special status.
296 AD: Under Diocletian, Egypt (with Libya) becomes a diocese, divided into 4 provinces.
395 AD: With the division of the Roman Empire, Egypt comes to the eastern half of the empire (capital Constantinople).

Early days

At the beginning of the historical period around 3200 BC BC stood the political unification of the country and the development of writing. The unification of Upper and Lower Egypt to form an entire Egyptian state, according to new findings, took place around 150 to 200 years before the 1st dynasty, i.e. already at the time of the Negade III culture and the period following it, dynasty 0, whose last kings were probably ruled over all of Egypt. On the earliest written monuments, the kings Scorpio and Narmer (German Schlimmer Wels) appear, who are now assigned to Dynasty 0, as well as Aha (German warrior; 1st dynasty), while the later tradition at the beginning of the story is a ruler Menes set, which is due to the unification of the empire and the founding of Memphis as the first royal residence and which is often identified with King Aha.

The kings of the first two dynasties, called “Thinites” by Manetho, erected huge brick tombs in Abydos (Thinitic Gau) and in Saqqara near Memphis; Steles and precious stone vessels perpetuate their “Horus name”, which identifies them as the earthly manifestation of the falcon-shaped sky god Horus. A first severe crisis of the empire during the 2nd dynasty, in which the unity was lost again, was ended by King Chasechemui. According to homosociety, at that time Egypt was already present on the Sinai peninsula and its trade relations extended as far as Byblos in Lebanon. Armed conflicts led the Egyptians in the south to the 2nd cataract in Nubia.

Egypt History 2

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