China Foreign Relations
In foreign policy, the People’s Republic of China adheres to the path of peaceful development, advocates a diplomatic course of “kindness to neighboring countries and consideration of neighbors as partners”. According to howsmb, the state always implements the principle of non-interference in the internal affairs of other countries. Despite the good-neighborly and peaceful policy, the PRC has a number of territorial claims to India, Taiwan (considered as a sovereign part of the People’s Republic of China in the context of the continuation of the de jure civil war in China, therefore the relations with it are positioned and perceived by the PRC authorities as domestic policy ; As of 2023, the government of the Republic of China (Taiwan) has a similar opinion about the PRC), Japan, and some other countries.
Russian-Chinese interaction is characterized by a wide range of areas of cooperation, which include intensive contacts at the highest level, trade, economic and humanitarian ties, cooperation in the international arena, including in the UN Security Council.
In 1992, the Russian-Chinese mixed intergovernmental commission on military-technical cooperation was established. It defines the main areas of interaction and ways of implementing projects between the two countries in the field of military cooperation. The commission meets once a year alternately in Moscow and Beijing.
In 2004, the volume of Russian-Chinese trade amounted to 21.2 billion dollars. Russian-Chinese trade in 2004-2012 was characterized by an increase in China ‘s share of total Russian imports from 6.3% to 16.5%. Also, in 2004-2012, China’s share in Russia’s exports increased from 5.6% to 6.8%.
China and the USA are each other’s second largest trading partners, the volume of trade between them reached 500 billion dollars in 2012. At the same time, the US trade deficit with China reached an unprecedented high level of $315 billion in 2012. China is the largest holder of US debt ($1.3 trillion in 2016).
The main problem of relations between the states remains the issue of Taiwan. China considers the island as its territory, not recognizing the independence of the Republic of China. The US government takes the opposite position.
In April 2005, during the visit to India of the Premier of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China, Wen Jiabao, as a result of his negotiations with the Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, the parties announced the establishment of a “strategic partnership” between the countries. China uses this term to describe its relations with its most important foreign policy partners, such as Russia and the European Union.
China and India intended to increase trade turnover from 13.5 billion dollars. in 2004, up to 20 billion in 2008 and 30 billion dollars. in 2010. The parties consider information technology to be the most promising area of cooperation.
At the moment, relations between the PRC and Bhutan are strained because of the disputed territory, which covers an area of more than 270 km². Since the 1980s, the governments of these countries have held regular border and security talks aimed at reducing tensions.
China is helping Pakistan build its civilian nuclear program. Maintaining close relations with China is a central part of Pakistan’s foreign policy. China perceives Pakistan as a regional counterweight to the interests of NATO and the United States. The PRC supports Pakistan’s position on the Kashmir issue, while Pakistan supports China on the issues of Xinjiang, Tibet and Taiwan. Military cooperation has expanded with the launch of joint weapons production projects, ranging from the creation of guided missiles for frigates to the joint production of fighter jets. China is investing in the development of Pakistan’s infrastructure, including a deep-sea port in Gwadar.
China is North Korea’s largest trading partner, while North Korea ranks 82nd on the list of China’s trading partners. The PRC provides about half of all North Korean imports and receives a quarter of all exports.
China and Japan are the world’s second and third largest economies, respectively. In 2008, trade between China and Japan rose to $266.4 billion. Growth of 12.5% in 2007 made China and Japan the main trading partners. China was also the largest importer of Japanese goods in 2009.
Relations between China and Japan are sometimes strained due to Japan’s refusal to acknowledge its war crimes against China and thus its unwillingness to pay reparations.
In 2006, the border of trade between the People’s Republic of China and the Republic of Belarus in the amount of 1 billion dollars was overcome. The most important items of Belarusian export are potash fertilizers, caprolactam, quarry dump trucks, machine tool, electronics and metallurgical industry products. Representative offices of several Belarusian enterprises are open in China: MZKTC, MTZ, Belaruskali and others. MTZ also owns an assembly plant in China.
In accordance with the decree of the President of Belarus dated June 5, 2012, the Chinese-Belarusian industrial park “Big Stone” was created, which has the status of a separate territorial unit with a special legal regime, the term of which is 50 years.
From July 11 to 18, 2017, the joint Belarusian-Chinese exercises “Single Shield-2017” were held. The special forces units of the internal forces of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Belarus and the People’s Armed Police of China took part in the exercises.