Piómetra Dog: What Is, Symptoms and Treatment

The piómetra the canine is a bacterial infection of the uterus. Their clinical signs are poorly specific and obvious so it is important to know what it is to be more attentive to your dog. The piómetra can be open or closed, depending on whether or not there is vaginal discharge, and the treatment passes by castration.

Piómetra Dog What Is, Symptoms and Treatment

The piómetra the canine is a bacterial infection of the uterus secondary to a hormonal change, characterized by hyperplasia (increase) in cystic endometrium (inner layer of the uterus), which occurs mostly in female dogs no castrated with more than 5 years of age, 4 to 8 weeks after the cio.


Hyperplasia cystic of uterus is the increase pathological progressive in the size and number of glands of the endometrium as a response to the continuous exposure to the hormone progesterone, exposure that occurs in each cycle éstrico (cio). This hyperplasia is responsible for the production of secretions that accumulate on the inside of the uterus.

At the same time, the hormone progesterone decreases the defenses locations of the uterus and its ability of contraction. From the point of view of reproduction, this hormone for is, when it occurs to fertilization, allowing the embryo to find a favorable environment for its development in the uterus, without being attacked by the defenses of local or expelled.


During the active phase of the reproductive cycle of the bitch, the cervix ( the area of transition from the vagina to the uterus) remains open and this allows the passage of bacteria, which are part of the normal flora of the vagina, to the uterus.

After oestrus, the cervix closes and the uterus is under the influence of progesterone. The junction of all these events form the ideal conditions for the multiplication of the bacteria and consequent piómetra.


Most piómetras occurs in bitches with more than 5 years old who have developed hyperplasia, cystic endometrium due to the continued exposure and repeated to progesterone, which is produced during the successive cios.

There is also another group at risk, more young and that has no relationship with the hyperplasia, cystic endometrium. The females who have undergone hormone treatments with estrogen to abort or with progestogens to prevent the cio are very predisposed to piómetra, by which the administration of these drugs as a way to control breeding is highly discouraged.

You can also develop in females and castrated but for which the tissue of the uterus was not entirely removed, as well as when there are complications, and infections postpartum.

Due to the fact that the reproductive cycle of the cats be different, with lower blood concentrations of progesterone, is the most frequent occurrence of piómetra in bitches.


The clinical signs of piómetra are sometimes unclear, which explains that this is often a pathology that develops quietly without the owners realising the gravity of the situation.

Usually come 4 to 8 weeks after the cio, or after the administration of the hormones mentioned above.

Are varied, and include lethargy, anorexia, polidipsia (increased water intake), polyuria (increased urine output), and vomiting.

The piómetra canine may present itself in two ways:

  • Open – cervix is open and allows the passage into the vagina of pus that forms in the womb;
  • Closed – cervix is closed and does not allow the passage to the vagina, the pus formed in the womb.
  • Depending on whether the one way or another, the clinical presentation varies. There is absorption of bacteria and toxins present in the pus, into the blood stream, which can, in severe cases, lead to septicemia (massive infection), compromising the functioning of the organic.
  • In piómetras are closed, the uterus can accumulate pus up to the limit of its capacity, which may result in rupture and infection severe abdominal cavity.


  • The diagnosis is made based on the clinical history of the animal, including the signals and the time passed after the cio. The realization of an x-ray and/or abdominal ultrasound confirms the diagnosis, allowing you a view of the uterus with excessive liquid content.
  • Should also be performed blood work to see if there have been the most affected organs due to the spread of the infection, including the kidney.


  • The treatment of choice for this problem is the ovariohisterectomia (removal of uterus and ovaries), after its stabilisation by serum and antibiotics.
  • In the case of the bitch worth breeding, you can consider medical treatment, in alternative to castration with the administration of antibiotics and hormones that help to expel the contents purulent.
  • However, only the ovariohisterectomia prevents the recurrence of the piómetra canine.