Nigeria Physical Characteristics
According to PLUS-SIZE-TIPS.COM, the territory, which extends to a large extent in the drainage basin of the Niger river and in that of the Benue, its tributary, has different morphological aspects according to the regions. The central-northern section is occupied by a vast plateau, which is an integral part of the tabular structures of Guinean Africa, enlivened by numerous valley furrows. To the NE it slowly degrades towards Lake Chad, while to the South and SW it is bordered, respectively, by the valleys of Benue and Niger; its average altitude is 1250 m asl. As for its geological structure, it consists of a Precambrian crystalline base, partially covered by Cenozoic volcanic formations which, in the central part, give life to the Bauchi plateau(1781 m). The southern section, on the other hand, has less pronounced altitudes; in its ambit, however, the territories to the West of Niger are distinguished, characterized by the alternation of granite reliefs and wooded hills with softened shapes, from those to the East of the watercourse, formed by the western offshoots of the reliefs of northern Cameroon. Finally, along the coast, with a depth of 60-70 km, an alluvial plain opens up, including the vast and intricately intricate Niger delta (approx. 25,000 km 2) and bordered, like the whole Guinean coast, by lagoons and sandy bars.
The position, between the Equator and the Tropic of Cancer, the considerable extension in latitude (approx. 10 °) and the increasing distance from the sea make the climate of the Nigeria vary significantly in the NS direction. In the coastal strip, constantly beaten by the humid winds coming from the Gulf of Guinea, there are equatorial climatic conditions, with always high temperatures (25-26 ° C) and abundant rainfall (approx. 2500 mm per year) that last for the whole year, while reaching its maximum intensity in spring and autumn. In inland regions, as the latitude and distance from the sea increase, the influence of the southern winds diminishes, while that of the harmattan, a dry wind of continental origin, increases until it becomes dominant; consequentially,
Apart from the north-eastern and southern regions, which respectively tributary to Lake Chad (of which the south-western shore belongs to the Nigeria) and directly to the Gulf of Guinea, the Nigerian territory is drained by the Niger and the Benue, whose regimes, closely linked to that of the rains, are characterized by summer floods and low winter temperatures. Unlike the Benue, which has a regular profile, the Niger has a bumpy path, even though it is navigable in the Nigerian section; in the delta area it is divided into a multitude of branches which, crossing a territory strewn with oil palms, are called oil rivers . Closely linked to the intensity of the rains, the vegetation cover is luxuriant in the southern regions, while inside it becomes progressively poorer. Near the sea, therefore, dominates the evergreen forest of the equatorial type, bordered, on the coast, by vast formations of mangroves and including, in the less humid areas, deciduous trees; it is replaced by the savannah, interrupted here and there by woodlands (arborated savannah) and, along the rivers, by the gallery forest; in the N, finally, the trees disappear, with the exception of some xerophilous essences such as the baobab, while the grassy blanket becomes less rich and compact.