Nigeria Climate, Flora and Fauna
Climate. – Overall, the climate of West Africa is linked to the climatic relations between land and sea. During the boreal summer, the wind from the Gulf of Guinea blows across the heated land and carries with it the deflected trade winds of the southern hemisphere. The deviation usually occurs at a latitude of 3 ° or 4 ° Nigeria This wind is particularly humid because it passes above the equatorial current and, in some places, above the equatorial countercurrent. On the other hand, during the austral summer it blows from the NE from the high pressure area of the desert located much further north. the wind called harmattan, dry and dusty. Naturally, the wind regime is more sensitive to Nigeria than to S. In the delta region and on the coasts there can be abundant rains from April to October and even for a longer period. Rain has two maximums, one after each period of verticality of the sun’s rays above a given place. In the rainy season, rainfall occurs every day, significantly lowering the temperature. In Lagos, the two rain peaks are separated by a relatively dry period in August. But this pause no longer takes place in the east, where, in Akassa, the annual average rainfall is around 3600 mm. The peaks occur in June (465 mm.) And in October (617 mm.), But from March to November inclusive the average rarely drops below 200 mm. per month and only the month of January is relatively dry (65 mm.).
Lokoja, near the confluence of Benué with Niger, has 255 mm. say rain in its wettest month (September); in the remainder of the year, rainfall exceeds 120 mm. monthly only from April to October, while the November-March season is dry, having only about 80 mm. of rain in five months. Bauchi, located even further to Nigeria, usually has four months (November-February) completely free of rain; rainfall is scarce in March, April and October. But in the rainy season the height of the region makes the precipitations considerable (July and August altogether 550 mm.). In Kano, located further north still, the rains are very scarce, except between May and September; here, as in Bauchi, there is only one maximum (August, with 280 mm.).
According to EZINESPORTS.COM, the total rainfall, which in Akassa is 3600 mm., Is reduced by half in Lagos, located much further to the West on the coast. In Lokoja the total is about 1210 mm.; to Bauchi 1020 mm. and in Kano 800 mm. On the northern and western borders of Nigeria, precipitation decreases rapidly as it goes towards the desert, until it drops to 225 mm in Timbuktu. with a maximum of 85 mm in July. Tornados occur in seasonal changes. The weeks following the end of the rainy season are characterized by particularly unhealthy heat.
The changing of the seasons produces very small differences in temperature. Lagos has the hottest in March with a temperature of 27.8 °; but August, which is the coolest month due to cloud cover, has an average of 24 °, 3. Even during the night, the temperature does not drop below 15 °, 5. In Akassa the fluctuation is even smaller: 26 °, 6 in April, 24 °, 4 in August. In these coastal stations, the temperature reaches its maximum in March or April and November, i.e. before and after the rainy season, while the minimum occurs in August (rainy period) and January (harmattan period).). In Kuka, near Lake Chad, the temperature fluctuation is greater with averages of 21 °, 4 in January, 33 °, 5 in April, 26 °, 2 in August, 29 °, 5 in October, that is with a double increase and a double decrease.
Very painful, in southern Nigeria, is the humidity of the air which in Lagos averages 90%, although harmattan sometimes reduces it to less than 30%. In northern Nigeria, on the other hand, the air is dry, except during the period of heavy rains, where they occur, and such burning dryness is often annoying, although Europeans, using proper care, can live in these northern regions quite comfortably.
Vegetation and flora. – The humid warm coastal region is covered by an extensive virgin tropical forest where rainforest areas are typical: in it we find important wood for cabinet making and construction. The territory abounds in the precious oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), which is one of the main riches of the region. The mouths of rivers are lined on the banks by mangrove formations, abundantly developed. On the other hand, in the territory that extends to Nigeria, the savannah and the desert steppe follow one another, while the typical gallery woods are found along the banks and riverbeds.
In the savannah abound: rubber acacias, baobabs, butter trees (Bassia Parkii) and cola (Cola vera and acuminata) which are important economic resources of the country together with palm oil, coconuts, cocoa, coffee, cotton, tobacco.
Fauna. – Rich fauna as in general all that of West Africa. Among the anthropomorphs we will notice the chimpanzee and among the monkeys various vervets. Of the Lemurs we will mention the West African galago and the Awantibo. The Chiroptera are represented by the rossette; the Insectivores from the Potamogale, and by numerous other species of the order. Carnivores include various viverre, ichneumon, hyena, various musteles, jackals, various African cats, the lion, etc. Among the Rosicanti we will remember numerous squirrels, dormice, mice. Ungulates are very richly represented: the African elephant, the hippopotamus, the red potamochero, many species of antelope, gazelles. Remarkable is the presence of the manatee, among the Sirenids. Among the Toothless we will mention the short-tailed pangolin. The avifauna is very rich in number of species and individuals and among the Reptiles there are numerous species of lacertilî, ophidî and cheloni. Among the Amphibians we will mention many species of frogs, toads as well as some representatives of the order of the caecilians. Among the Pisces in addition to many teleosts of, representative of the Dipnoi. The fauna of invertebrates is very rich in insects of all orders, arachnids, millipedes as well as numerous species of terrestrial and freshwater molluscs.