Geography of Uganda

Uganda’s geography, 4/5 of the land area consists of the central African plateau, and is 900-1500 m., With higher mountains in the edges and Africa’s largest lake, Lake Victoria (68 800 km2) in the south. The boundary areas in the west belong to the Rift Valley, and are partly made up of the volcanic Virunga mountains in the south and Ruwenzori (bedrock) with the country’s highest peak, Margherita, 5109 meters above sea level. further north. The highest peaks are covered with snow and ice. Also on the border with the Congo are Lake Edward and Alberta. The outer areas of the east are made up of a chain of volcanic mountains, which extend from the border with Sudan and south to the Elgon volcano, which is the highest mountain here with 4321 meters, close to the Kenya border. The high mountain plateau drops steadily towards the lakes Kyoga and Lake Victoria in the south. The Nile flows through Uganda, from Lake Victoria via Kyoga to Lake Alberta and further north.

Uganda's national parks

Lake in one of Uganda’s national parks, Queen Elizabeth National Park, located southwest of the country, near the Congo border.

Natural Disasters

Floods and landslides at the foot of Elgon Mountain 2010 and in the Bulambuli District 2011.

National Parks

Bwindi Impenetrable, Kibale, Kidepo, Lake Mburo, Mgahinga Gorilla, Elgon, Murchison Falls, Queen Elizabeth, Ruwenzori and Semuliki.

Climate in Uganda

Uganda lies entirely within the tropics and is equated by the equator. The country has a tropical rain climate, which is modified due to the elevation of the sea. The average annual temperature is around 22-23 ° C with little difference between the warmest and coldest months. The annual rainfall is approx. 1500 mm, somewhat more in the mountainous regions, somewhat less in the northeastern valley. There is no actual drying time, but the bulk of the precipitation falls into two annual rainfall maxima as the equatorial rain belt passes on the way to the north in April / May and on the south in September / October.

Queen Elizabeth National Park

Plant life and wildlife in Uganda

Wood savanna and grass savanna cover most of Uganda. In the northeast, there is steppe vegetation. In the west there is rainforest, most of it is cleared (8% of the land is forest). In the mountains grow bamboo and tree-like lightning, at the top there is meadow vegetation. Sump areas dominated by papyrus and other species of the sedge – and the grass family.

The mammalian fauna is very rich and includes almost 350 species. The primates include mountain gorillas and chimpanzees (in the west), house monkeys, maracats, guereza, colobus monkeys and galagos. The small forest elephant occurs in the west while savanna elephant, pointed horn, giraffe and coffee buffalo are common in some national parks. Lion, leopard, smaller cats, sneakers, spotted hyenas and numerous antelopes are widely used.

More than 1050 bird species have been observed. Herons, storks, frankolins, wax eaters (formerly: honeycomb), shrimp, beetles, icebergs, hornbills and beards are characteristic. Colorful sparrow warnings, sunbirds, tails and weavers must be highlighted by the sparrow birds. The gray crow is a national bird. Many birds of prey, including river eagles, vultures, snake eagles, fighting, top and clown eagles and secretary birds.

165 reptiles and more than 40 amphibian species. Nilåbor and Tilapia species are the most important of more than 50 freshwater fish. Malaria mosquitoes and test flies are very troublesome in some places.

Geography and environment

Uganda is located in the middle of the African continent and does not have direct access to the sea. The equator line crosses the country in the southern part. The land covers an area of ​​241 550 km² (source: UN ).

Almost one fifth of the land area consists of lakes. Uganda shares Lake Victoria with Tanzania and Kenya. This is one of the Nile’s spring waters, and this part of the Nile, the White Nile, flows north through Uganda and across the border to Sudan. On the border of DR Congo are Lake Alberta and Lake Edward. In the middle of the country lies Lake Kyoga, which is a shallow sea; almost swampy.

The East African High Plateau covers large parts of Uganda and these areas are 1000-1500 meters above sea level, including the capital Kampala about 1200 meters above sea level. In the western part of the country lies the Rwenzori plateau. The highest mountains here are snow-covered all year round. Here lies the country’s highest peak, Margherita, which projects 5109 meters above sea level. Here we also find glaciers. In the eastern part of the country we find Elgon Mountain and towards the northern border of Sudan lies the mountain range Imatong. In the northeast corner of the country, in Karamojong, the landscape is almost desert-like.

Uganda has a tropical climate with two rainy seasons a year; in the periods April – May and October – November. The country has a very rich animal and plant life and is especially known for its many bird species.

From Murchison National Park

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