The evolution of the costume during the Middle Ages does not follow a strict chronological division. There was actually a large variety of clothing -both for women than for men. -Related to local circumstances, at a time when the territorial and political unity was far from being achieved.
Costume evolves relatively little during the period of the XIth in the twelfth century. The superposition of identical parts is the common rule. Their shape follows a unique pattern similar for both sexes, and only the lengths vary. The scale is required, the body remains hidden. An outfit is distinguished primarily by the quality of the clothes and accessories based on VINTAGEINCONFIDENTIAL.COM.
They are usually woven, but the felt is sometimes used.
The wool plays a major role in making clothing.
Silk was used for the upper classes through trade with the East.
The linen used for antiquity, used to weave more or less fine materials for making chainses and breeches.
cotton began to be imported from Egypt. cotton muslin was used to make sails
hemp is the textile boors. The bright colors: red, blue, green, yellow, black, were searched and some rare and expensive.
the humble using local plant colors and were content to more neutral coloring. The fabrics were also used in its natural state.
Gallic We kept the taste for alternating colors, such as horizontal stripes. Striped breeches are represented on the Bayeux Tapestry, dating from the eleventh century.
For men, they consist of a chainse and breeches . The length of the chainse (shirt underneath) is proportional to the wealth of its owner. The trousers are longer or shorter, but still puffy waist. exclusively male, they are the current pants, long or short, sometimes split on one side so as to be able to roll up, they rise up to the bust, as they are intended to be rolled on the size, tightened by a cord, braïel . The most common material is flax, more or less fine. The women’s underwear are little different from those of men, but fabrics and colors more varied, with more ornaments for the nobles. Women do not wear trousers. They sometimes around the chest of a muslin veil, playing the role of a bra.
The chainse can be pleated ankle. Yarn or white silk crepe. Embroidered at the neckline, cuffs, and bottom.
Again, the basic shape is common to both sexes. It is called the main garment coat , bliaudor tunic . Men wear sometimes split vertically in front and behind to be more comfortable on horseback. Ample in all cases, it is distinguished by its length, width, sleeves and the more or less numerous embroidery adorning the neck, chest and sleeves.
The legs are protected by breeches linen, wool or made of silk. Those men go up to the crotch, and attach the top of trousers with laces. These women, neighboring our current socks, are held by a lacing below the knee.
. Semicircular Pilgrim closed on the front with hooks and knots can be fur-lined
buttons employment The spread at the end of the twelfth century: double buttons past two buttonholes. Spherical or flat leather or fabric, bone,
Horn, ivory, metal.
Caps and Accessories
The iconography represents the women of that time with hair as long as possible. . Separated by a median line into two plaited braids brought in front (often knee) for girls and young women and sometimes elongated pendants
Noble ladies wear most often sail sailing coat, just laying sailing, sailing, with headband, veil draped over the shoulder, sailing crossed under the chin forming wimple then falling on the shoulders. It can be held in place by pins.
the servants and farmers also wear veils but shorter and less fine, hair can also stay free with a front or a braided headbands headband with hair, it is also just a scarf on the head with a pan or two rejected (s) on the shoulder or sling which the skirts are knotted on the side around the head.
After 1200: trend to shorter hair, held back by a tip circle and floating behind the shoulders.
-linen chiffon or silk sail out or church .
-For older women: big bun, wrapped in a kind of double scarf tied under the chin and topped with a horizontal band around the head.
-For widows and religious: a large cap in lightweight fabric hides hair, forehead, neck and even the top of the bust. wimple
-The “flower hats” referred not a hat shape, but simply a crown .de blueberries or roses, which up to 1320 was maintained as indispensable part of the costume ball or banquet. The frontlets, diadems species formed a silk braid loaded
with gold and precious stones, fall hats made of flowers: they had the advantage of not fade! They also had the advantage of much more expensive and thus establish a more garishly demarcation between large and small fortunes.
Men have varied hairstyles.
. The hold: small cap wool or canvas for inside (as a wool cap)
A big soft cap overlying the conical winter with – the folded end, or square with headsets.
A cotton cap summer, like a beret or a wide-brimmed felt hat folded.
on holidays: a chapel, large band of precious fabric laced orfroi, shovels, flowers and peacock feathers.
the peasants were usually head naked, but covered it in cold or rainy weather, a cloth hood holding in surcotte, a wide-brimmed felt hat, felt caps molded wool on steamed wood forms.
series of accessories complements outfits gloves, leather shoes, leather belt or wool, purse or purse clasp.
Gloves : knit, skin or fur for the knights, adjusted • on hand, looser on wrist, they cover the forearm.
mittens skin for hunters.
heavy canvas gloves for craftsmen.
leather gloves for farmers.
the gloves were used as symbols on many occasions: throw the glove, it was cause duel; the address was to accept the challenge.
Leather is a putrescible material, archaeological remains are extremely rare. Shoes that had been kept in wet, favorable to their preservation, allowed a working recreation – work also relied on an iconography for its abundant enough. Many uncertainties remain, however. For example, we are not able to clearly identify the shape of women’s shoes since, in the illustrations, the upper part
is concealed by the dress. A few examples show open shoes. As the reenactors often opt for ankle boots worn by men.
The leather was sewn with linen thread, which poissait to make it waterproof, robust and easy to work.
They are made in leather as the technique of sewn-back, like the clothing fabric. A welt is sandwiched between the top and base to strengthen the seam and to reduce wear. Using an awl to predrill the sole, and then to perforate the other parts as and when the assembly.
Women’s shoes : very diverse
– or low amounts,
– closed or split,
– with or without tongue
– leather, felt, cloth, whether or not filled.
Fashion tiny feet, little heels. Undulating gait studied.
This is an essential accessory for before the suit begins to adjust to the body, the belt tightening clothing overlays around the waist so as not to impede movement. It also serves to hang closer to self scholarships and purses. Generally, it is closed by a metal loop over which one can build one end.
As shown all the pictures, the belt was known during the Middle Ages significant changes in shape, ornamentation, but also in how to wear it. But we must note that the belt modest social categories do not vary over time: most often, it consists of a leather strap, a loop-and sometimes decorative studs in base metal.
It is hard helpful …
the belt has several functions, the first and most obvious being to choose the clothes close to the body. With no pockets, it also allows men and women to secure various objects, especially grants of various shapes and keys. The finds
archaeological, like iconography, highlight several methods to suspend these objects. The complex is a mounting bracket, metallic element riveted to the belt.
We also see the use of leather lace or fabric, unless the objects are simply slid under the strap of the belt.
The belt is therefore an essential accessory for the activities of the various workers. Indeed, the peasant could hang or slip in its tools in multiple images, a winemaker carries a pruning knife in his belt and at summer jobs, “the villain” jammed it lifted up his shirt
to be free of its movements and having less warm, the worker will put his tools, such as his trowel.
The shepherds, in turn, could tie their boxes ointment useful to treat their animals.
The list of objects that were hung on the belt is more varied: it can go to the necessary maiden sewing with writing cases of clerics or scholars. The belt even plays a role in the spinning work; Indeed it allows to slide the spindle, thus stabilized, while allowing freedom of movement in both hands of the spinner.
But the belt can also be as expensive …
The belt is sometimes a real financial commitment and an investment for the person who buys it is also a very appreciated gift. In court, the king or queen could reward their followers or their guests by offering them a belt. The nobles did the same.
True jewels, these belts were ordered to goldsmiths. Their precious metal decorations represented most of their value and it is the precious metal weights that represented their prices. Moreover when a family had financial difficulties, the belt could be pledged to a creditor.
Purses, bags and purses
Purses, wallets and purses the are availble with leather or fabric.
The fineness of metal accessories – like that of forged rings for chain mail reflect extreme control.
Overdrafts jewelry often include Buckles. Utilitarian objects, they used to close the amigaut the neck or cap, they can also be decorative. The richest have a setting of precious stones.
The pins for holding the caps hardly distinguishable pins used in sewing.
Clothes are one of the many instead reveal that an individual holds in the society of his time. But it would not otherwise medieval childhood. As soon as designed, the infant was “dressed” by the popular and scholarly imagination to XIlle century, doctors say, for example, the placenta that is a “mantel” (coat) for the baby in utero. The strong sense of childhood as a time of life unfulfilled, fragile and constantly in danger, pushed the child minders to design for toddlers and an unstitched garment closest to the body: the shirt, remained virtually unchanged from antiquity to the nineteenth century. The idea was that educators unfinished, malleable, the body of the infant might grow deformed if care is not taken. To avoid it to grow counterfeited, should be constituted him a textile reinforcement. Gradually, as he grew up, the child saw his clothes evolve, so as to approach gradually adult practices.
The armor of newborns.
The clothing toddler includes a fabric cap worn tight to avoid protruding ears and shaping his skull so perfectly rounded for some, or lying to others; umbilical band worn next to the stomach in the early days; probably a package of lint or cotton as a layer and above a swaddling in which the arms are arranged along the body and legs outstretched, clasped ankles.
The medieval suit consisted of a “machine” (flax, hence its name, in lès rich, and hemp for the common), worn next to the skin, and a “mixture” (wool, etymologically), called “flag”; it was maintained by a long band of color to several times round the body, the “braid” crisscross France and Italy in tight spiral. Thus dressed, the child looked like, especially in Italy, a small mummy – which, in any anachronism, was criticized by ignorant relatives medieval historians the real intentions of the former nursery. The latter, through the dress requirements, was actually trying to protect children. Immobilized with a jersey given by the strips, the baby was not in danger, by stirring, to discover or fall from the crib. It would grow straight. Admittedly, such a system could have negative effects, we knew or we consciously minorait: such suits were undoubtedly harmful to children with congenital hip deformities; since the sixteenth century, doctors denounce swaddling “popular”, old – will nevertheless continue until the twentieth century! The well-dressed babies spend their time screaming. Shame on the parents’ garrottent “their children at risk of painful conditions, such as the” stone “, may stop the growth… Yet even binding, even spiral, the shirt was not as rigid as might believe and simple experimentation in convincing: he did not exclude the sitting position. Moreover, toddlers and were often wrapped démaillotés: several times a day among the affluent, when bathing, feeding each – up to seven times a day-because it is naked by the fire, the baby was fed. Besides the jersey was worn during the very first months of life, after which the arms of the child were released to teach him to control the grip.
If no piece dress of the small childhood has never been identified in the excavations, the observation of thousands of illuminations depicting ordinary children as well as the child Jesus can reconstruct the way to dress babies. The garment toddler has no seams, and mothers or nannies do not employ more dangerous pins to hold up the jersey. Cloth diaper are square pieces of cloth in which the child is wrapped. Is folded on the chest and twice reheated, and the feet, and a strip, tied at the ankles, serves contention to the whole. The dressing and undressing the child were extremely quick, useful thing in a world where the houses were only poorly heated. Sometimes the machine is long enough to be wrapped skull What, saving the purchase of a cap with little affluent parents. This piece dress, there were several models: winter cap, or “béguinet”, “night Double Cup”, “double day chaperon […] to keep from catching cold” are listed pr a health plan the fifteenth century for use by children under seven years of the Burgundian court. We see that the heat concern guarantor of preservation of health, is essential in the field of children’s clothing.
As soon as the age of the march approached, mothers and nurses were wearing a dress the child . Simple, unisex, it was split on the sides, behind devant.voire to facilitate his stool. The absence of panties also left him free to the potty. Barefoot at home, wearing .de small shoes soft leather. and rising outside, the child was usually carried in the arms of the mother or father, because we do not encourage crawling, considered too animal posture. Thus he dirtied little practical thing in a society where the fabric was expensive and where the clothes were not possessed by many. The fact was less likely to fall, and you is to protect his skull, which was known fragile, he was then wearing a “bead”, a sort of padded ring encircling the front fitted with a hoop passing overhead. Stockings, socks and caps “made the needle, that is to say, knitted, kept him warm in the winter months. His feet were protected from the cold by leather shoes with thin soles too, but stuffed with buttered gland if it was cold!
In the long dress, without a shirt in summer range, succeeded, probably around the age of three or four years at least before the age of seven years for boys, a shorter dress, brought to height the knee, above the shirt, like adults, and tied at the waist with a thin belt, black or red leather. The child could hang a whistle, its alphabet tablet; his little satchel schoolboy, called “pocket” – useful accessory in a suit that does not just understand it. This is the age at which the dress of the girl, who is still long, is distinguished from that of his brother, and which colors and materials-diversified by gender and wealth of the parents. In aristocratic circles, for example, the shades adopt saturated ranges that reflect cost techniques. Modest people are content to dress their children hemp or brown wool, when they do not retaillent in an old coat of blue or red adult enough to dress.
Nor for clothing newborn dice, costume -do children is found in the “archaeological excavations. with the exception of soft leather shoes tight at the ankle by a lace, well preserved in wetlands, tissues hardly reaches us that the state of fragments. It takes the chance of a particular context, that of a burial dressed, to find a shirt wire nettle and designed dress, a little girl of Merovingian …